The fish overboard to be thrown away by the fishermen. Typically, this so-called bycatch, in the legitimate development of which they have no quota. In other words, if you can catch Pollock quota, and you have to trawl incidentally caught herring, cod, or shrimp, we have almost everything to throw it away.
Up to 40% of fish is transported by so -called “wagon-thermos”, which can only for some time to maintain the temperature, but not to regulate it. In the end, in the warm season, fish from the Far East can come to the center of Russia has softened and deportirovanniy, and the result is either immediately disposed of the entire container, or freeze it again and even put in a trading network.
In networks, as a rule, deception is revealed, and then everything depends on the integrity of retailers. Poor quality fish can be discarded, and you can surround with ice, add phosphates and other “anti-aging” products and try to deceive the end consumer. However, even a decent retailer can become a victim defrost, if, for example, in logistics, the company decided to save money on freon when delivering fish from stock at retail outlets.
As acknowledged by the Deputy head of Rosrybolovstvo Vasily Sokolov, the real extent of fish losses, no one knows. They can range from 5 to 25%, and in some fisheries up to 50%. Under a separate types of, most likely, meant the production of shellfish where the percentage of edible meat is small.
In the 90 years the bottom of the Barents sea in the coastal area was literally covered meter layer of the shell from the scallop. It was divided into courts, and the shells thrown overboard. In the end, this waste is literally buried under itself places on the development of the scallop, and its population has dramatically decreased. Now such production in order to transfer to the shore so that you can efficiently dispose of waste.
Allowed to pick up for recycling not more than 2% of the total catch, the rest you are welcome overboard. However, ecological disaster in the oceans is not a cause of discarded fish from becoming food for other fish and gulls, walruses, seals, dolphins, and most importantly – for zooplankton, which is the primary link in the aquatic food chain.
Another controversial reason for the destruction of fish by the ton – the so-called “scientific fishing”. In the zero years this was known fraudulent method to bypass the existing system of catch quotas. Commercial production was carried out ostensibly for scientific purposes, although all fish caught were for sale.
Not so long ago, the Agency closed a loophole, science was separated from Commerce. Now the fish, including such valuable species as whitefish, Baikal omul, or can catch only real scientists. But they are required by law to destroy it to the last tail. Even my dinner, can’t cook, once caught. Just watch as it burns to black coals of the failed kebab of Cisco.
Before the fishing industry at all levels are now tasked with moving to waste-free production. The introduction of the mechanism of investment quota and has already begun building high-tech trawlers, processors and coastal factories on deep processing of fish that will contribute partly, but entirely the problem will not solve.
In Russia there is still no business system for extracting revenues from fish waste, although potentially this market could amount to hundreds of millions of dollars. Fish meal is the main product of recycling – we are still mostly purchased abroad, although it is made from fish heads and bones and is the main ingredient for animal feed in aquaculture.
In Siberia this year launched the production of designer clothes out of fish skin – not just doing the usual belts, wallets and handbags, but also jackets and shoes in the style of John Galliano, who created his famous pink shoes from salmon skin. In Argentina, as you know, the mods even play soccer in gym shoes made of fish skin, and in Scotland and even invented the bikini from the skin of the salmon.
But if they have this systematic trend, we have only private business experiment. The marginality of the production of designer clothes from fish skin can reach up to 90%, and residents of Kamchatka could not suffer every autumn a frightening landscape of abandoned and decaying salmon, which have no place to recycle. But for pipeline production is easier and cheaper to use the usual fake leatherette, and it is impossible to say that the textile industry, in principle, is experiencing an upswing.
Worldwide fish waste is actively used in cosmetology and medicine. About the beneficial properties of fish oil in Russia many people know, but in Brazil, for example, use the skin tilapia for the treatment of burns. Officially, according to prescription, not a folk healer. In the skin of tilapia a lot of collagen and it heals wounds faster than ointments with silver ions.
In Russia, the collagen prefer to take all of the same black caviar for the production of creams and serums luxury. Skin, they do tighten and rejuvenate, but for mass production you can take and the raw material is 20 times cheaper. Apparently, marketers believe that the very mention of sturgeon on the label should stimulate the demand for such cosmetics.
In the food industry you can use the fish waste such as the gonads, milt, shells of mollusks, cuttlefish ink. The latter, incidentally, can be used not only for making rice or pasta black shade, but can also be used in painting or calligraphy.
It is known that the world famous Venetian masks painted it with ink of cuttlefish and the famous Norwegian Explorer Thor Heyerdahl used this ink for doing travel writing on Board his raft “Kon-Tiki”, where waves threw themselves cuttlefish. Cut, turning in the finished ink.
The fishing industry is not considered a leader in the waste. According to X5 Retail Group in the segment of trade with fruits and vegetables the situation is even worse, the losses reach 50%. But there mangled bureaucracy tomatoes and apples you can’t even use it for compost in agriculture, the law only prescribed for disposal.
The conclusion is clear – the regulatory framework of food waste need to become more flexible and responsive to modern realities. For example, to strictly regulate the permissible amount of waste in the catching and processing, but not to destroy illegally produced delicacies, if they can be spent on charitable purposes. The same businessmen who are taken to turn fish waste into profits, it would be possible, conversely, to subsidize at least in terms of partial repayment of interest on loans, as practiced in aquaculture.
Reforms in the market of food waste is long overdue. According to UN estimates, to meet the requirements of population in food by the year 2050, the world will need to increase food production by 60%. But if you actively use the technology of reducing food waste, to increase this production will have just 28%. Yet, the UN recognized that the world is undernourished is about 1 billion people. Im not up to painting Venetian masks with cuttlefish ink, but saved from unjustified disposal of fish and other foods they would eat now and with a big appetite.