On the one hand, the majority of journalists, human rights activists took the position of protecting the rights of victims of representatives of the national minorities. MIA hastily trying to take custody of the “camp”, which broke in many cities of the country representatives to travel loving people, the SBU is looking for a Russian trace. Meanwhile, the population shows a clear sympathy for those who talk about “the Roma problem” and trying to solve it, its far from the law. To top it off, Ukraine has received negative international reaction: relevant statements were made by the EU delegation in our country and the Council of Europe. Against this background, the representatives of the Roma community had to say about the persecution of national minorities in Ukraine. Today we can say that the localization (not to mention solving) the problem will be expensive and risky from the point of view of Finance, other resources and policy perspective. The paradox is that none of this would be, do state their basic functions.
Do not notice each other – as Roma and the government was going to a knife fight
The problem of the Roma minority, which is actively talking the last few weeks, has been brewing for years. The young Ukrainian state after independence was not up to the Roma – economic and political crises of the 90s put quite different tasks. The situation was not something special state policy towards national minorities, by and large, does not exist so far. Language and other laws on national cultures was to combat Russian influence, leaving out the problems of other nationalities, their interactions with the state.
Ukraine recalled that in its territory there live different nationalities or before public holidays (e.g. to record video “has not yet perished” in the national languages), or when there were conflicts, escalating to the regional level. The rest of the state tried to ignore a national minority. But, if its citizens do not work for you, start working more. Hungarians, Romanians, poles, Belarusians and even come to grips with the Diaspora. Some (e.g. Hungary) took to the hands of the education system, local authorities in places of compact residence, others (Belarusians) used the national organization as a means of promoting their products on the Ukrainian market, and others, without having “national enclaves”, just to prepare the population for emigration to compensate for the labor shortage. Naturally, each of the States, among other things, promoted in the minds of their “compatriots” favorable ideological and historical agenda. It’s okay in the end, Ukraine has in recent years, albeit chaotic, not organized, but does the same. The problem is that in the places of residence of the Ukrainian government “fighting for minds” is pursuing its policy of integration, thereby creating a balance of influences. In Ukraine, politics was not. Therefore, when the crisis began with the Hungarians of Transcarpathia was clear that “will continue” – after all there are still many ethnic groups.
This will return to Roma. Their national state they have – so there was no external influence. The Ukrainian government is “not noticed” this national group. Gypsies, who have been forced to settled life during the late Soviet Union, said Ukraine return: stopped “noticing” the state and returned to their traditional way of life moreover, that the Soviet regime failed to destroy it.
Problems with work that have survived and representatives all over Ukraine was exacerbated by the traditional division of professions on desirable and undesirable from the point of view of the traditional way of life.
The problem could be solved by stimulating the emergence of certain businesses (metal, Souvenirs, jewelry, the same service vehicles), but the state was not up to it. Part of the Roma, however, have engaged in a familiar activity: drifting from town to town in search of work, begging, trading.
Of course, when your city comes a group of people whose behavior sharply contrasts with the habitual and “normal” for this region, there is a misunderstanding, sometimes fear and tension. If this group is closed in itself, doesn’t make contact with the local, sharply reacting to the possible dissatisfaction, sooner or later, conflict begins. Take even the example with the dirt around the Roma tents in the forests, the destruction of trees. Alas, it is usual practice for many of the country’s citizens, regardless of their nationality. You can verify this after strolling through suburban forests, or the places of recreation for Ukrainians. Or, here’s a fresh sample of the inhabitants of Transcarpathia (non-poor settlements, including tourists) is using the local river as a trash – contracts on export of household waste do not sign, believing that it is easier to throw in “strumok”. Then the mountain “Ukrainian debris” dam up the river in Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. But with Roma, the situation is simple – there are a group of people that is easy to identify, which are not part of the local community. Accordingly, their behavior and the results of their stay, they cause irritation and aggression: what would the Ukrainians will not forgive the “Gypsy camp”.
The situation is similar in other areas of earnings. Child begging, “spare”, Roma frightened. Approached the woman, “Slavic appearance” with the offer to talk or asking for help can count on the compassionate citizens (for example – the crowd of professional beggars on the approaches to the churches), from Gypsy will shy away.
With the specifics of trafficking even more difficult: in the “mutual ignoring” the Romani minority and the state, each other, the execution of the laws, was and remains fantastic. This applies both to the assortment (sold everything, including prohibited goods), and trivial taxes. Do not pay taxes, by the way, a significant part of Ukrainians. But the attitude of “its” – the black sheep – nobody focuses on Ukrainian (Belarusian, Russian, Hungarian or other) nationality. If the dealers live in the “Roma neighbourhood”, talking about “Roma drug dealers”, although the drug trade in Ukraine a lot of people.
Increase the problem and the first “riots”: everybody wins
So, over the years of independence a situation when the cities of the country roamed groups of people, which was easy to identify on a national basis, and who were anti-social (from the point of view of the locals) lifestyle, often dealt with prohibited types of income.
In 2014, when state institutions (except the army) even more weakened, the problem of Roma traveling around the country has grown in numbers as the number of travelers and the aggressive reaction of local residents. The pressure was growing and sooner or later it had over the big Bang.
The saddest thing is that the state could prevent the problem using existing tools:
- The state can encourage the development of a particular type of activity. In the end, to regulate the legal status of artisans (not Popy – craftsman may not always be able to earn even a single tax)
- To provide a programme for the integration of Roma communities into local life, to study the experience of other countries to solve similar problems
- In the end, through the local authorities (or centralized) to solve the issue with locations such tourists. That is to allocate land on which to camp, where you can build a fire any time of the year, which, in the end, clean. Yes, it is possible to introduce a fee for use – this is possible and earn.
Using the force of law
- garbage near human settlements, antisocial behavior. Tabor can be forced to leave their place with a simple use of the capabilities of the administrative code. Article for infringement of rules of an accomplishment, the destruction of green spaces, hooliganism has not been canceled. The police could just come in and start up protocols. People said that no papers – detention to ascertain the identity. Does not pay the penalty of administrative arrest. Three visits patrol throughout the day along with the protocols (written on case) cause to appear any camp.
- begging behavior and Tabor in the street. To work with it even easier. In Gypsy culture is the cult of the mother and family. But for the inducement of a child to unlawful acts, antisocial behavior, you can sue for deprivation of parental rights. A few brought to a logical finale of the cases, I am sure, would significantly reduce the number of people in cities across the country.
- in the hot season there is a very simple solution to the problem of the Gypsy camp in the woods. There are periods when forests and forest parks are simply not allowed to visit, and even more so to breed fire. Came a period asked to curl up. Do not go – according to KOAP the penalty and then administrative arrest.
But, alas, “the state” to solve problems is not reached. On the one hand, you cannot create a unique “program for the Roma” – this is discrimination of other national minorities, which do not. On the other – the state still doesn’t answer the question: what is the long term strategy of working with persons of non-Ukrainian nationality in the country. Therefore, the “creating opportunities” has been that instead of the word “Gypsies” began to use the word “Roma”, although it’s not without a joke – the Palace of culture “Bolshevik” in Kiev today hangs a huge banner that there is “national Gypsy theater”.
If we talk about the repressive apparatus, then there is even more difficult. Put yourself in the place of the patrol, who detained the Roma (better yet, the Roma child) for identification. After 30 minutes near the site will be the whole tribe. The result is a work day “down the drain”. The case to court, if they pass, the result will be questionable. And then you and your bosses’ll take care for dealing with the Gypsies. It is troublesome.
Visits to the camp, and attempts to punish for the same amount of trees, or forced to leave the forest fire season require effort, nerves and time. As a result, you will be guilty of human rights defenders accuse the prosecution of citizens on a national basis, the repression against the Roma. Again get a scolding from his superiors.
The government has chosen the tactic of “ignore the problem” but the problem “notice” state. If the system works, ordinary citizens tend to seek the solution methods available to them. In the arena there are right-wing organization. One pogrom, with demonstrative expulsion of the “outsiders of our forests (city, village, yard)” adds to their public support, gives new members into the organization. Such actions are win-win from the PR point of view – fear-minded people to play witch hunters.
For the Roma, paradoxically, is also a plus in such a scenario (if there were no casualties). On the one hand, it enhances communication, mutual support within the group, while maintaining the autonomy of the Roma community in Ukraine. Thesis, “Ukrainians do not like us, so we should stick together” becomes dominant. On the other hand, such excesses are noticed by employees of charities. So there will be more grant money, will bring another batch of humanitarian aid. If the problem came on quite a high level – you can expect a reaction from the state, which according to the usual pattern, instead of finding reasons, are documented and results portions of social assistance grants payments.
Such is the tactic of “win-win” for the massacres. Their get right, their get and ROMs. The state suffers because:
- it creates the appearance that the state system is proving unable to solve even the most primitive problem – the whole system is powerless in front of a group of citizens who spit on the laws and customs;
- the state loses the monopoly on arbitration and on the violence – citizens are convinced that to solve problems easier and faster on their own, not by law and by the rules;
- at a critical increase in the number of pogroms tactics of “win-win” fails and Roma can consider forming their own self-defense units and response actions
- the state is forced in the end to react, but in conditions when no one believes him, nobody takes him seriously.
If you look at the headlines over the past couple of years, obviously, we went through all 4 points. The state machine is forced to intervene, but with the position of the loser, because it has no forces and possibilities to suppress the activity of the right and attempts to take a sober look at the situation and try to punish the offense of the representatives of the Roma community will be perceived as a continuation of repression. The national police, according to Mr. Knyazev will look for the location of encampments across the country and take them under protection:
- Do not understand the legality of the camp, how the results of functioning of the Tabor harm (or Vice versa) forests to protect;
- To protect the Roma, perhaps, respond to their complaints about the conduct of local, but not to respond to possible complaints and appeals to local residents of the Roma camp.
This approach destroys the credibility of the police, to achieve the authority of the state and, in the end, it takes the morale of the police themselves: if, instead, in their view more important matters, they are forced to protect Roma people where complaining about the locals.
Alas, the situation of Roma today is partly questioned the ability of Ukrainian authorities to control the situation. As with the Hungarian minority, the lack of timely work (which would not take away a lot of time and resources) leads to higher costs against the backdrop of recent foreign policy issues.
What to do with it?
The answer to the question should be divided in two parts:
- Reaction to the killing and massacres
- Policy development.
If to speak about the murders – there should be an investigation and punishment of those responsible. But, at the same time should be the validation (hopefully, the national police followed the instruction of his superiors in search of the nomadic camps) camps of the Roma and, if there are violations of the administrative code – the punishment of the guilty. Simply put, if the representative of the people suffered from criminal crime, it does not relieve other representatives of the people from punishment for an administrative offense.
From the point of view of policy – basic approaches described above.
On the one hand, the state should create conditions for the development of employment among the Roma minority (given the specific character of culture), but the measures taken must be equally useful, and the rest of the population. For example, a handicraft type of activity can bring out from the shadows of the illegal workers, can stimulate the development of employment in some regions. Creating places for breakdown of camps within the city limits (municipal forests are in most towns) will help to streamline the placement of “wild” tourists and can give additional income to local authorities.
But only one “stick” will not give the desired result. This is true without reference to a specific nationality – if there is a group which offer opportunities, but don’t talk about responsibility, the result will be.
Therefore, the second side of the coin – the repressive apparatus of the state. The key here is to work the system without amendment to the nationality. Roughly speaking, for pollution should be punished like the inhabitants of the Carpathian villages, shitting in her own river, and residents of Tabor in Goloseevsky Park of Kiev, who dirtied the place of Kiev. Stealing, begging, and illegal trade have no nationality – there are specific performers who are lacking in any nation.
The work of social services, the guardianship may not like the Roma people, but there are laws of the country and to educate children in the spirit of disrespect to him, to encourage children to unlawful acts is punishable. If the result is under attack are the core values of the Roma – the family and motherhood (in their understanding) is the problem of the Roma, not of laws. But, and here I stress once again – the same steps should be taken in respect of other nationalities. Bad mother, bad father, raising a potential criminal has no nationality – they are bad parents.
The main thing – to stop hoping that the problem will resolve itself and, finally, to do at least a study of the life of national minorities in the country. Ideally, to develop their own Ukrainian agenda, to decide how to integrate them into society, how to convey that Ukraine is their country. Otherwise, the problem will be repeated. Were Hungarians, now of Roma in Ukraine live many more relatively closed ethnic groups. It’s time to stop stepping on the same rake.