05.02.2023

Who raised taxes and how to get money back for treatment, education and purchase of an apartment

By April 30, Novosibirsk residents need to fill out tax returns. If you have transport, a land plot, you sold an apartment that you owned for less than 5 years, received income from interest on deposits, then you need to pay tax.

But there is good news, especially for those claiming tax deductions. For example, it has become easier to get a deduction for purchased medicines.

How not to remain in debt to the state, how much money can be returned for education, treatment and interest paid on the mortgage – these and other questions of the NHS were answered by Irina Demidenko, head of the department of taxation of personal income and administration of insurance premiums of the Federal Tax Service of Russia for the Novosibirsk Region.

– What taxes should an individual pay in 2021?

– Individuals pay personal income tax on the income received, if it is subject to declaration.

In most cases, personal income tax is withheld from wages by a tax agent (an organization where a person is employed). The tax agent is responsible for calculating and withholding tax and transferring it to the budget. Accordingly, wages are paid to an individual less withholding personal income tax.

Individual entrepreneurs, notaries, lawyers, etc., independently calculate personal income tax and submit to the tax authorities a declaration of income in the form of 3-personal income tax. received gifts from other than close relatives, won the lottery, rented out property, or received income from foreign sources.

In addition, since 2020, a new regime has been introduced for self-employed individuals – they pay tax under such a tax regime as the tax on professional income. This tax is also paid on the income received, but at a reduced rate of 4% or 6% – it has its own specifics, its own characteristics.

There are also property taxes for individuals. These are primarily transport tax, property tax for individuals and land tax.

To put it simply: if you are an employee, the employer himself will transfer the tax withheld from the paid income. If you are an entrepreneur or if you have sold or rented out an apartment, you accrue personal income tax on your own. If you are self-employed, pay professional income tax. You also need to pay property tax: for example, if you own transport, land, real estate.

– The President announced the introduction of a new personal income tax rate from January 1, 2021. What does this mean and how will it affect ordinary people?

– The basic rate of personal income tax is 13%, and since 2021 the so-called progressive tax rate has been introduced – 15%.

It is applied when the income of an individual for the year exceeded 5 million rubles. That is, up to 5 million, 13% is charged, as usual. And for the amount over 5 million, tax is charged at a rate of 15%.

To put it simply: if your income exceeds 5 million rubles, then the tax is paid at a rate of 15% (the increased rate is not for the entire amount of income, but for an amount that exceeds 5 million).

– What types of income are not covered by the increased rate?

– Income from the sale of property, income received as a gift, under insurance contracts and under pension agreements. These earnings are not subject to the increased rate.

Let’s say a person sold an apartment, a car, respectively, received some kind of income. This income will not be included in the total for the tax period – the tax on it will be at the usual rate of 13%.

If a person received a gift of property (this is also the income of an individual), then this income will also not be subject to this progressive tax rate.

Also, the increased rate does not apply to income received under insurance contracts. For any type of insurance, when a person receives an insurance payment (for life insurance, property and other types of insurance).

An increased rate is not applied under pension agreements when a person enters into an agreement, for example, with a non-state pension fund, for which the payment is made, and if a tax base arises under the terms of the agreement, the tax is calculated at the rate of 13%.

The legislation provides for transitional provisions. In the next 2 years (that is, in 2021 and 2022), the income received will not be accounted for in aggregate, that is, not for the whole year for all types of income received, but for each type separately.

– That is, we are not talking about total income?

– For example, in terms of wages. If the salary is higher than 5 million per year, then you will pay from the excess amount at a rate of 15%, not 13%.

If a person simultaneously has income in the form of dividends, then so far these dividends are not added to the salary.

And already from 2023, income accounting will be made on an accrual basis. That is, all income will be summed up.

For 2020, there are still no figures for the number of individuals who had an income of more than 5 million rubles (in terms of total income); as of 2019, this is about 5 thousand people in the Novosibirsk region.

– How has the taxation procedure changed from interest on deposits?

– Previously, the tax base on interest income on deposits was determined in a completely different way. The rate was 35%. And from January 1, 2021, the order has changed.

For example, a person has several accounts in banks, and for the year, interest is calculated on all deposits in all banks, financial companies, on account balances. If the amount of interest accrued for the year exceeds 42,500 rubles, then tax is charged on the difference at a rate of 13%.

Why 42,500? Because the legislator has established the so-called tax-free minimum, which is determined as follows: multiply 1 million rubles by the key rate of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (as of January 1, 2021, the rate is 4.25%), we get 42,500 rubles.

Many people think that the amount of the deposit is taxed. This is a false statement. Only interest accrued by the bank is levied, and only if the amount of accrued interest is more than 42,500 rubles. For example, a person will receive 50 thousand rubles in the form of interest on deposits, which means that a tax of 13% is paid from the difference:

50,000 – 42,500 = 7,500 x 13% = 975 rubles.

The payment mechanism is as follows: the bank, after calculating interest, will transfer information about the charges to the tax authorities. The tax authority, having collected information from all banks, accumulates it for a specific individual, and if the amount per year exceeds 42,500 rubles, the tax authority will charge tax on the excess amount. The assessed tax is included in the tax notice for the payment of taxes. The very usual notification that the tax authorities send by the deadline for December 1 to pay property taxes – transport tax, property tax, land tax. And in the same notification, personal income tax will be added from the interest income on the deposit.

For 2021, this tax will have to be paid for the first time on December 1, 2022.

To put it simply: the sum of your income from interest on deposits is more than 42,500 rubles? Then you will need to pay 13% of what you received in excess of this amount.

– What is a tax deduction and how to get it?

– Tax deduction is an opportunity to receive a refund of previously paid tax from the budget if you incurred certain expenses, for example, purchased an apartment, purchased medicines, received a paid medical service, paid for education for yourself, as well as for the education of children. In the event that a person receives official income (from which he pays personal income tax at a rate of 13%), he can receive a tax deduction. That is, it can return the previously paid tax in a certain amount.

– How to get a tax deduction when buying a property?

– This is the most popular and significant tax deduction in terms of amount. We are talking about the purchase or construction of housing. The amount of this payment is limited to the amount of personal income tax refund of 260 thousand rubles (maximum amount). That is, the maximum amount of expenses is 2 million rubles, the return is 13% of this amount.

But the refund is made on the condition that the person paid such an amount of personal income tax to the budget (13% of the official earnings). That is, it is first paid, then returned.

For example, a person bought a room for 1 million rubles. Accordingly, then he receives from one million 130 thousand rubles (again, provided that he paid so much to the budget). Then he can buy more property and get a tax deduction again. But not more than two million in total. That is, from two million spent on housing, a person is given the right to receive a tax deduction once in a lifetime.

A person can apply for a deduction within three years.

To put it simply: once in a lifetime, each person can receive a tax deduction for the purchase of real estate (payment from 2 million, and no matter how much real estate was bought for this amount). That is, the maximum amount you will receive is 13% from 2 million. This is 260 thousand rubles. You can get the entire amount at a time if you earned 2 million in a year, respectively, paid taxes on them. In other cases, the deduction amount is provided within the earned income for the year. That is, you can receive it every year (if there is an official earnings) until you select the entire amount.

– How to get tax deduction for mortgage interest?

– Now a lot of housing is purchased with a mortgage, on the terms of borrowed, credit funds. In this case, in addition to the two million rubles of tax deduction for the purchase of housing, an additional deduction is provided for the interest paid on the mortgage (with a maximum amount of 3 million rubles). That is, the maximum amount of tax deduction will be 390 thousand rubles (13% of 3 million rubles).

To get a deduction, you need to contact the tax office when the tax period ends. For example, in 2021, you can apply if a person bought an apartment on a mortgage in 2020. And if you bought it in 2021, you can, without waiting for the end of the tax period, contact the tax authority and receive a notification confirming the right to receive a tax deduction from the employer.

The deduction is provided on the basis of several documents. This can be a purchase and sale agreement, an agreement on equity participation in the construction of housing, a document confirming ownership (an extract from the register), as well as a loan agreement. Payments are required directly, confirming the payment of interest to the bank, or a certificate from the bank can be provided, which confirms the amount of interest paid.

That is, a tax deduction from mortgage interest can also be obtained once in a lifetime (from the amount of 3 million) over the past three years.

– What other tax deductions can I get?

– For example, for the cost of training – both your own and the children. Moreover, your own training is not limited in any way either in amount or in age. These can be refresher courses, training at a driving school. The main thing is that the organization that teaches must have a license for an educational type of activity. Plus, you need payment documents.

The deduction amount is 120 thousand rubles. Accordingly, 13% of this amount is 15 600 rubles (this is the maximum amount of the deduction).

If a person bears the costs of paying for the education of their children, a deduction can also be obtained. But the amount is limited – 13% from 50 thousand for each child, in total for both parents. For children, the deduction is limited to 24 years of age and full-time education. You can get a deduction for both your education and your child’s education (if your income allows you to do this).

– How do I get the health care tax deduction?

– This deduction is divided into two types: expensive and common.

Expensive or not – this is determined by the medical institution, there is a special list of these services. The tax authorities give a deduction based on a certificate provided by a medical institution.

The medical institution reports the service code: either 1 or 2. If the service code is 2, it means that expensive treatment has been received, which means that there are no restrictions on the amount of tax deduction. How much a person spent on expensive treatment, 13% he has the right to return from the budget – if he paid such an amount in the form of tax.

If the certificate contains code 1, it means that the usual treatment has been received, the amount of which is limited to 120 thousand rubles.

That is, this amount – 120 thousand rubles – according to the law includes all types of social deductions, with the exception of expensive treatment and with the exception of education for a child. Everything else is added up: you paid for your education, your treatment – for you, this amount is 120 thousand rubles a year, no more. That is, you can return 15 600 rubles in tax from the budget.

It should be noted that from 2021 the list of medical services from which a social deduction can be obtained has been expanded. These are medical services provided within the framework of primary health care on an outpatient basis and in a day hospital setting. For example, paid ambulance.

– What documents do I need to provide in order to receive a tax deduction for treatment?

– The contract, if it was concluded. As a rule, the agreement contains a reference to the presence of a license from this medical institution. If not, a copy of such a license is required. The tax office does not even need payment documents directly confirming the payment. A certificate from a medical institution is enough. Everything is spelled out in it, and it confirms, among other things, not only the fact of the service received, but also the payment for it.

– Is it possible to get a tax deduction for the purchase of medicines?

– This is a large expense item for many, and for this, you can also get a deduction. It is accounted for as part of the total amount of social deductions not exceeding 120 thousand rubles.

But not all medicines can be taken for deduction – only those prescribed by a doctor. That is, not something that you yourself, on your own initiative, buy, but precisely according to the doctor’s prescription. To receive a deduction, the doctor’s appointment can be confirmed by an extract from the outpatient card – on the letterhead of the clinic, where the doctor prescribes a medication, puts his own stamp, and, of course, with prescriptions. Plus you must provide receipts from the pharmacy.

– What is a life insurance tax deduction?

– If a person has entered into a life insurance contract for a period of at least 5 years, then a social deduction is also provided for this type of insurance. That is, you pay insurance premiums, and it doesn’t matter whether an insured event happens or not. The very fact of paying insurance premiums gives you the right to take advantage of this deduction. But there are conditions: the contract must be concluded for a period of at least 5 years. The amount spent on this, again, is included in the total amount of social tax deductions – 120 thousand rubles.

– Who can get an investment deduction?

– Investment tax deduction is when a person invests their funds in any financial company. From the amount of the contribution of 400 thousand, you can also return 13%. This is 52 thousand in tax. There are conditions for obtaining it: only one investment account must be opened, the account must be opened for a period of at least three years. The person who opened the account must be a resident of the Russian Federation.

– What sanctions threaten individuals for tax evasion?

– The deadline for filing a 3-NDFL income tax return is April 30, the deadline for payment is July 15. The deadline for payment of property taxes is December 1.

For violation of the deadlines for filing the declaration and payment of personal income tax, the taxpayer can be held liable in the form of a fine and penalty. For violation of the deadline for submitting the declaration, the amount of the fine is calculated as follows: 5% of the amount of tax payable to the budget for each full / incomplete month of delay. That is, for each overdue month, 5% of the tax amount is added. But there is a limitation – the amount should be no more than 30% (this is the maximum), but not less than 1000 rubles.

And for late payment of penalties, they are charged at the rate of 1/300 of the refinancing rate for each day of delay in payment. In addition, a measure of responsibility is provided for late payment of taxes – this is 20% of the amount of tax not paid on time.

As for the property taxes not paid on time, the debt on them will grow every day. Indeed, in this case, in addition to the tax itself, it will be necessary to pay penalties accrued for each day of delay, a state duty (at least 200 rubles for the issuance of a court order or 400 rubles for considering a claim) and a performance fee (in the amount of 7% of the amount owed, but not less than 1000 rubles).

– How can you fill out a declaration without going to the tax office?

– You can do this online in the taxpayer’s personal account for individuals, where most of the data has already been pre-filled, or use the Declaration program on the FTS website.

In it, all data about the payer is automatically pulled from the database: identification data, the amount of income received.

If you have an obligation to pay tax and you are entitled to a tax refund, then offsetting occurs.

For example, for payment – 15 thousand, for refund – 12 thousand. Accordingly, there will be 3 thousand to be paid.

The declaration can also be submitted in paper form to the tax office at the place of your registration, to the multifunctional center for the provision of state and municipal services, or sent by mail.

By the way, the deadline for filing 3-NDFL returns on April 30 does not apply to tax deductions. In this case, you can send the declaration at any time during the year.

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